皇冠足球比分

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减少农村安全饮水工程HDPE给水管网漏损的思考

作者: 徐佳 张砺寒 叶伟 赵妍 编辑: 转载 来源: 中国灌溉排水发展中心 发布日期: 2019.05.24
信息摘要:
由于我国农村供水尚处于发展的初级阶段,行业管理和工程运行管理存在不少薄弱环节,其中,管网漏损现象较为普遍,不仅造成大量水资源浪费,降低了供水…

我国农村饮水安全建设历经十余载,累计解决了5.2亿农村居民和4700多万农村学校师生的饮水安全问题,使农村饮水安全问题得到了基本解决。共计建成集中供水工程77万处,总供水能力已达1亿m3皇冠足球比分/d,HDPE供水管网长度已超70万km。由于我国农村供水尚处于发展的初级阶段,行业管理和工程运行管理存在不少薄弱环节,其中,管网漏损现象较为普遍,有的水厂漏损十分严重,不仅造成大量水资源浪费,降低了供水保证率,而且给供水单位造成经济损失,影响工程长效运行。

1.NONGCUNGONGSHUIGUANWANGLOUSUNXIANZHUANGJIJIANSHAOLOUSUNDEYIYI

皇冠足球比分 (1) GUANWANGLOUSUNHANYI。GUANWANGLOUSUNYOUCHENGGUANWANGSHUISUNSHI,ZHEILIZHINONGCUNGONGSHUIGONGCHENGSHUPEISHUIGUOCHENGZHONGSHUIYINHDPEJISHUIGUANWANGPOSUNERLIUSHIDEXIANXIANG。GUANWANGLOUSHUILIANGJIGONGSHUIZONGLIANGYUYOUXIAOGONGSHUILIANGZHICHA,QUJUEYULOUSUNLIULIANGHELOUSUNSHIZHANG。LOUSUNLVJIGUANWANGLOUSHUILIANGYUGONGSHUIZONGLIANGZHIBIDEBAIFENLV。GUANWANGLOUSUNDAZHIKEFENWEIMINGLOU、ANLOUHEBEIJINGLOU3ZHONGLEIXING。MINGLOUSHIhdpeGUANDAOSHANGCEPOSUN,SHUIYICHUDIBIAO;ANLOUSHIGUANDAOXIACEPOSUN,LOUSHUIXIANGDIXIARUSHEN,JIAONANBEIFAXIAN;BEIJINGLOUSHIZHIPEGUANDAOLIANJIECHULOUSHUIHEGUANBIZHENKONGDISHUI,LOUSHUILIANGBIQIANLIANGZHONGSHAODANSHIHENNANBIMIAN。

(2) 供水管网漏损现状。据2015年调查资料分析,我国30多万处设计供水规模20m3/d以上的集中供水工程平均管网漏损率约26%。受计量设施不完善以及工程运行管理水平等因素限制,一些地区用“估值”填报,使汇总分析数据的准确性打了折扣,实际漏损率可能更大一些。PE给水管网漏损造成大量经净化消毒、耗用大量人力、物力、财力等成本的自来水白白浪费,直接影响供水工程经济上的自我维持和良性运行。如东部某省一处农村安全饮水工程,设计供水规模5万m3/d,实际日供水量3.9万m3,监测分析管网漏损率约30%。估算日均管网漏损水量约1.17万m3,按运行成本水价1.6元/m3推 算,日均经济损失约1.87万元,全年多达683万元。

(3) 加强管理并减少管网漏损的重要意义。《水法》第五十二条规定,城市人民政府应当因地制宜采取有效措施,推广节水型生活用水器具,降低城市HDPE给水管网漏失率,提高生活用水效率。2015 年国务院印发的《水污染防治行动计划》明确要求,对使用超过50年和材质落后的供水管网进行更新改造,到2017年,全国公共供水管网漏损率控制在12%以内;到 2020 年,控制在10%以内。县级以上地方人民政府应当加强对公共供水系统运行的监督管理,降低供水管网漏损率。公共供水企业和自建供水设施的单位应当加强供水设施的维护管理,减少水的漏失。 《村镇供水工程运行管理规程》(SL689-2013) 规定,Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ型集中供水工程的管网漏损率上限标准分别为12%、13%、14%、15%。按照Ⅳ型工程漏损率上限值15%现状为26%考虑,我国农村供水工程管网漏损率至少有11个百分点的提升空间。按全国集中供水工程实际日供水量6520万m3估算,每年浪费水26.2亿m3左右,如能有效控制漏损,则可少建717万m3/d供水规模的工程,按全国农村供水工程平均运行成本水价1.92元/m3皇冠足球比分估算,日均节约运行成本约1377万元,全年可达50.2亿元。 目前许多供水工程运营产多收少、入不敷出,影响长效运行,这是一个老大难问题。笔者认为解决问题的出路一方面是建立健全科学水价机制、控制好水费回收率,增强管理机构效益;另一方面是内部控漏,采用质量优良的HDPE给水管,采取综合措施合理降低运行成本,打好“增收节支”的组合拳。减少管网漏损是“节支”的重点之一,应引起更多重视,采取更有效的措施解决它。

2 NONGCUNGONGSHUIGUANWANGLOUSUNDEZHUYAOYUANYIN

皇冠足球比分 GUANWANGLOUSUNJUGAOBUXIADEYUANYINKEGUINAWEIYIXIAJIDIAN:YISHIBUFENGONGCHENGGUANWANGLAOHUAPOSUNJIAOWEIYANZHONG。ZHENGZAIYUNXINGDEGONGSHUIGONGCHENGZHONG,YOUBUXIAODEBILIJIANSHENIANDAIXIANGDUIJIAOZAO,DANGSHISHOUZIJIN、JISHUDENGTIAOJIANXIANZHI,FAZHANLINIANLUOHOU,GUIHUABUJINHELI,GONGSHUIGUANCAIDUOYANG,JIANSHEBIAOZHUNBUGAO,JINGDUONIANYUNXING,POSUNLAOHUAYANZHONG,LOUSUNLVJIAOGAO。YOUDEGONGCHENGYINJUNGONGYANSHOUWEIZUOHAOZILIAOZHENGLIHEJISHUJIAOJIE,DAOZHIGUANXIANBUQING、MAISHENBUMING。YIXIEGONGCHENGDEZHUGUANWANGSUIZAIJINNIANDEDAOGAIZAO,DANSHIFENZHIGUANWANGYINZIJINSUOXIAN,GAIZAOJINCHENGZHIHOU,PUBIANDAIBINGYUNXING,LOUSUNYANZHONG。

皇冠足球比分 ERSHIGUANCAIZHILIANGHESHIGONGZHILIANGCUNZAIYINHUAN。“SHIWU”HE“SHIYIWU”QIJIAN,GONGCHENGJIANSHERENWUZHONG,DALIANGSHIYONGPEGUANHEQIUMOZHUTIEGUAN。YOUYUGUANCAISHICHANGJIANGUANBUYAN,YIXIEDIFANGZHIXINGZHAOTOUBIAOZHIDUZHUIQIUDIJIAZHONGBIAO,YIXIECHANGSHANGYILIEZHIDEDIJIACHANPINGAOEXINGJINGZHENG,ZAOCHENGYIXIEGONGCHENGSUOYONGDEHDPEJISHUIGUANCAIZHILIANGBUGAO,YUNXINGKANGYADENGJIBUYI。ZAISHIGONGANZHUANGSHI,YIXIEDIFANGWEIYANGEZHIXINGJISHUGUIFANBIAOZHUN,MAISHENBUZU、GUANDAOGOUCAOWEIYANGEPINGZHENG、WEICAIYONGXISHAHUITIANYASHI、WEIANGUIDINGSHEZHIZHIDUNZHENDUN、CHUANYUELUQIAODEBAOHUCUOSHIBUDAOWEI。ZHEIXIEWENTI,SHIDEBUFENGONGSHUIGUANWANG“XIANTIANBUZU”MAIXIAYINHUAN。

SANSHIGONGSHUISHUIYAGUANKONGBUYAN。SHICEZILIAOBIAOMING,GUANWANGLOUSUNSHUILIANGYUGUANWANGYUNXINGYALIDEPINGFANGGENCHENGZHENGBI,GUANWANGSHUIYAPIANGAOJIANGDAOZHIGUANDAOLOUSHUIMIANJIHELOUSHUILIANGDAFUZENGJIA。RUMOUCUNCUNNEIHDPEJISHUIGUANDAODESHUIYADA0.4MPa,GUANWANGMODUANSHUIYABIJINGUANCAICHENGYASHANGXIAN,SUIRANMANZULE《CUNZHENGONGSHUIDANWEIZIZHIBIAOZHUN》(SL308-2004)ZHONG“GONGSHUI GANXIANMODUANYALIBUYIDIYU0.12MPa,BIANYUANHUOTIAOJIANJIAOCHADIQUYONGHUSHUIYABUYINGDIYU0.05MPa“DEYAOQIU,DANSHIPEGUANDAOJINGCHANGZAIJIEJINYALISHANGXIANDEGONGKUANGXIAYUNXING,ZENGJIALEGUANWANGLOUSHUILIANG、YEZENGJIALEBAOGUANFASHENGJILVJISHUIBENGNENGHAO。

SISHIDUIGUANWANGJIANLOUDEZHONGSHIBUGOU。MUQIAN,JINSHAOSHUDIQUYOUNONGCUNGONGSHUIGUANWANGJIANLOUWEIXIUZHUANYEJIGOUDUIWU,DADUOSHUDIQUGUANWANGJIANLOUSHANGCHUYUKONGBAIZHUANGTAI,ZHEIYUDANGQIANWOGUO70WANkmDENONGCUNPEGONGSHUIGUANWANGGUIMOJIGUANWANGLOUSUNLVPIANGAODEXIANZHUANGJIBUSHIYING。YIXIEGONGSHUIDANWEIZHUANYEJISHULILIANGBUQIANG,HUSHICHANXIAOJILIANGGUANLI,GUANWANGLOUSUNQINGKUANGBUMING,YINGDUICUOSHIBULI;PEGUANWANGJIANLOUWEIXIUDUIWUZHUANYEJISHUSHUIPINGCANCHABUQI。

3.JIANSHAOGUANWANGLOUSUNDEZHUYAOJISHUCUOSHI 

(1) 科学管控管网水压。合理的管网供水压力,应在满足管网薄弱点稳定运行的同时,满足管网末梢和消防栓水压的要求,使管网在相对低的水压下运行。管控管网水压是漏损管控的一项基本措施,不仅能减少PE给水管道漏水面积、降低漏水量,而且能使部分承压薄弱点“转危为安”,降低新漏点出现的概率,同时还能减少加压水泵电耗。有调研资料表明,如果供水水压在保障正常供水状况下降低10%,管网漏损率将降下5个百分点左右。照此推算,上文所举东部某省农村供水工程案例,日均可减少漏损水量1950m3皇冠足球比分,节约运行成本0.31万元,全年可节 约114万元。水压管理的措施包括分区控压、水泵控压、调蓄池水位控压、阀门控压等几种途径。分区控压主要适用于规模较大的供水工程,在综合考虑各受水区用水情况、地理高程以及管网级别、长度、管材种类与质量、建设年代等情况的基础上实施水压分区管控。将整个管网水压由统一压力调度改为适当降低供水压力,对配水距离较远或高程偏高的受水区另建二次加压泵房,使大部分受水区PE管道压力在适宜区间内运行。水泵控压是在保证水泵运行工况和效率的情况下,通过不同功率配水水泵的搭配使用实现管网水压合理调控。水泵变频调速能够实现更为精准高效的水压管控。调蓄池(清水池、高位水池、水塔)水位管控适用于重力自流供水工程,在夜间用水需求小的时段,适度降低调蓄池水位,也可以降低HDPE给水管网水压。阀门控压是通过人工操控或远程遥控阀门开度,产生一定的水头损失,从而管控阀门下游管网水压。在实际操作中,应加强水锤防控,严禁快速启闭阀门或水泵,避免造成管道薄弱处破裂损坏。

(2) DINGQIKAIZHANGUANWANGJIANLOU。JINGYANBIAOMING,YOUYUEBACHENGDEGUANWANGLOUSUNSHUILIANGCHUZIPOSUNJIAODADELOUDIAN,XIANGDUIYUXIAODELOUDIANLAISHUO,DADELOUDIANGENGRONGYIBEIFAXIANBINGJISHICHULI。NONGCUNGONGSHUIGONGCHENGGUANLIDANWEIYINGDINGQIKAIZHANGUANWANGXUNCHAGONGZUO,JIANLOURENYUANYINGQUANMIANZHANGWOBAOKUOPEGUANDAODEWEIZHI、MAISHEN、GUANJING、SHUIYA、ZHOUBIANTURANGLEIXING、DIXIASHUIWEIYIJIGUANDAOSHIYONGNIANXIANHEWEIXIUDENGQINGKUANG,YANTUJIANCHAPEGUANXIANMAISHEDIBIAOSHIFOUYOUJISHUIHUOSHIHEN,JIANCHAFAMEN、PAIQIFA、PAISHUIFA、JIANCHAJINGDENGYOUWUMAIYASUNHUAI,CHAKANGUANWANGMODUANSHUIYAHEYONGHUYONGSHUILIANGDENGQINGKUANG,JISHICHUZHILOUSUNJICUNZAIDEYINHUAN。YUCITONGSHI,YINGZHUBUJIADAZHUDONGJIANLOUGONGZUOLIDU。DULIFENQUJILIANGSHIZHUDONGJIANLOUDEJICHUHUANJIE,JIJIANGGUANWANGHUAFENWEIRUOGANCENGJIDEDUOGEPIANQU,ANZHUANGDUOJISHUIBIAOHEFAMEN,SHISHICENGCENGJILIANGHEKONGZHI,GENJUSHUILIANGPINGHENGYUANLI,DUIRICHANGGONGSHUIHEYEJIANZUIXIAOLIULIANGGONGSHUIDESHUILIANGCHAJINXINGTONGJIFENXI,PINGGUPEJISHUIGUANWANGLOUSUNZHUANGKUANG,WEILOUDIANDINGWEISUOXIAOFANWEI、KUANGDINGQUYU,YIZHIDINGGUANWANGGENGXINGAIZAOJIHUA。YEKETONGSHICAIQUTINGYINJIANLOUDENGFANGFACHAZHAOLOUDIAN。

(3) TONGCHOUGUANWANGGENGXINGAIZAO。NONGCUNYINSHUIANQUANGONGGUTISHENGDEGUANWANGJIANSHEYUGENGXINGAIZAO,YINGZONGHEKAOLVJIEJUEGONGSHUIBAOZHANG、XITONGANQUAN、SHUIZHIWENDING、FUWUSHUIYA、GUANWANGLOUSUNHEJIENENGJIANGHAODENGGEGEFANGMIANDEXUQIU,TONGCHOUGUIHUA、XITONGSHEJI、JINGXINSHIGONG。YINGGENJUGUANWANGLOUSUNXIANZHUANGJIGONGCHENGYUNXINGZHUANGKUANG,JIEHEBENDISHIJIQINGKUANG,KEXUEZHIDINGGUANWANGGENGXINGAIZAOBIAOZHUN,BINGZAIGUANWANGJIANLOUDEJICHUSHANG,ZHIDINGHDPEJISHUIGUANWANGGENGXINGAIZAOJIHUA。YOUTIAOJIANDEYINGJINKENENGCAIYONGGUANWANGDILIXINXIXITONG、SHUILIMOXING、LOUSUNJILIANGJIANCEDENGFANGFA,KAIZHANGUANWANGLOUSUNZHUANGKUANGPINGGU,WEIGUANWANGGENGXINGAIZAOJIHUAZHIDINGTIGONGJISHUZHICHENG。DUIGUANWANGSHISHIGENGXINGAIZAO,XUCESUANXINZENGTOUZIYUJIANSHAOGUANWANGLOUSUNDAILAIDEJINGJISHOUYIZHIJIANTOURUCHANCHUGUANXI,JIANGQIUJINGJIXIAOYI。

(4) WANSHANSHUILIANGJILIANGZHUANGZHI。YINGJIAQIANGCUNZHENGONGSHUIGONGCHENGGUIFANHUASHEJIYUBIAOZHUNHUAJIANSHE,ANZHAOXIANGGUANGUIFANYAOQIU,PEIZHUANGYUANSHUI、HUIYONGSHUI、CHUCHANGSHUI、GONGSHUIPIANQU( SHOUYICUN) 、YONGHUDENGDUOJISHUILIANGJILIANGZHUANGZHI。TONGSHI,YAOJIAQIANGDUISHUIBIAOGUANLIGONGZUODEJISHUZHIDAO,ZONGHEKAOLVSHUIBIAOGOUZHICHENGBENYUSHIYONGSHOUMINGZHIJIANDEGUANXI,KEXUESHUIBIAOXUANXING,YOUHUAGENGHUANZHOUQI。

(5) TUIJINXINXIHUAZIDONGHUAJIANSHE。XINXIHUA、ZIDONGHUASHITIGAOGONGSHUIGONGCHENGYUNXINGGUANLIXIAOLV、JIANGDIPEGONGSHUIGUANWANGLOUSUNDEYOUXIAOSHOUDUAN。KETONGGUOSHUICHANGSHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGQUSHUI、SHUSHUI、JINGSHUI、PEISHUIQUANTAOSHENGCHANHUANJIESHIXINGZIDONGJIANKONG, QUANMIANZHANGWOGUANWANGYUNXINGZHUANGTAI,SHIXIANLOUSUNJILIANGYUANCHENGHUOQU,SHUIYAGUANLIYUANCHENGKONGZHI,JISHICHUZHIBAOGUANDENGDALIULIANGTUFALOUSUNSHIGU。CIWAI,KEZAIJIANMODEJICHUSHANG,KAIZHANQINGJINGSHEDINGMONIYANJIU,BUDUANYOUHUAGUANWANGYUNXINGSHUIYADIAODU,WANSHANGONGCHENGYUNXINGCAOZUOGUICHENG,TIGAOGONGCHENGZHINENGHUAGUANLISHUIPING。YOUTIAOJIANDEDIQUKEDUIYIJUBEIXINXIHUA、ZIDONGHUADESHUICHANGZUOJINYIBUSHENGJI, TUIDONGCUNZHENZHIHUISHUICHANGJIANSHE,KAIZHANGENGDUOYOUGUANGONGSHUIANQUANBAOZHANGHEGONGCHENGYUNXINGJIESHUIJIENENGJIANGHAODEYANJIU。

皇冠足球比分 4.JIDIANJIANYI 

YISHIJIANGJIANSHAOGUANWANGLOUSUNGONGCHENGCUOSHINARUNONGCUNYINSHUIANQUANGONGGUTISHENGNEIRONG。JIAQIANGGUANWANGLOUSUNGUANKONGSHINONGCUNYINSHUIANQUANGONGGUTISHENGDETIZHONGYINGYOUZHIYI,YINGSHISHIKAIZHANQUANGUONONGCUNGONGSHUIGUANWANGLOUSUNDIAOCHA,QUANMIANMOQINGLOUSUNGOUCHENGHECHENGYIN,MINGQUEHDPEJISHUIGUANWANGLOUSUNGUANKONGMUBIAORENWU,GUIHUAGONGCHENGCUOSHIHESHIXIANLUJING。ZAIGUANWANGLOUSUNGUANKONGGONGZUOJIAOHAODEDIQUZHUAYIPISHIDIAN,TANSUOZONGJIEJINGYAN。

皇冠足球比分 ERSHIJIANGJIANSHAOGUANWANGLOUSUNNARUNONGCUNYINSHUIANQUANBAOZHANGZERENZHIKAOHENEIRONG。YOUHUADANGQIANYIGONGCHENGJIANSHEJINDU、NONGCUNJIZHONGGONGSHUILV、ZILAISHUIPUJILVDENGJIANSHEZHIBIAOWEIZHUDEKAOHETIXI,YINGJIANGBAOKUOPEJISHUIGUANWANGLOUSUNLV、JILIANGSHESHIPEITAOLV、SHUIFEIHUISHOULVDENGGUANLIZHIBIAONARUQIZHONG,ANZHAOMUBIAOYURENWUWANCHENGQINGKUANGYANGEKAOHE,QIANGHUAZERENYUESHU,DUCUGEDITIGAOZHONGSHICHENGDU,BINGJIANGZERENYALICENGCENGCHUANDAO,DAOBIGONGSHUIDANWEIJIJIXINGDONG,YOUSUOZUOWEI。

SANSHIJIANLIJIANQUANGONGSHUIDANWEINEIBUGUANWANGLOUSUNGUANKONGJILIJIZHI。YINGJIANGJIANSHAOPEGUANWANGLOUSUNYIJIGUANKONGSHUICHANGZIYONGSHUILIANGDENGJIENENGJIANGHAOZHIBIAONARUYUANGONGJIXIAOKAOHE,JIANGJIENENGJIANGHAOCHUANGZAODEJINGJISHOUYIYUYUANGONGJIXIAOGONGZIGUAGOU,SHIXINGJINGJIJIANGCHENG,CHONGFENDIAODONGYUANGONGZHUGUANNENGDONGXING。YAOJIAQIANGRENYUANZHUANYEJISHUPEIXUN,JIADAXUANCHUANLIDU,SHIGEGANGWEIRENYUANDUIGUANWANGLOUSUNGUANKONGDENGJIESHUIJIENENGJIANGHAOLINIANNEIHUAYUXIN、WAIHUAYUXING。

SISHICHONGSHIWANSHANGUANWANGLOUSUNGUANKONGJISHUBIAOZHUN。YIYOUNONGCUNGONGSHUIJISHUBIAOZHUNHEGUIFANGUICHENGZHONG,SUIYOUYIXIESHEJIGUANWANGLOUSUNGUANKONGDENEIRONG,DANSHANGBUNENGMANZUSHIJIXUYAO,YAOJIANLIJIANQUANHDPEJISHUIGUANCAIZHIJIANBIAOZHUN,YINGJIAQIANGXIANGGUANJISHUDEKEYANGONGGUAN,ZHONGDIANJIEJUERUJIANGDIJIANLOUCHENGBEN,TIGAOLOUDIANDINGWEIJINGDU,KAIFAXINXIHUAGUANWANGJIANCE,TISHENGGUANWANGLOUSUNGUANKONGXIAOLVDENGJISHUNANTI。

皇冠足球比分 WUSHITANSUOCHUANGJIANGUANWANGLOUSUNGUANKONGSHEHUIHUAFUWUTIXI。YINDAOJUYOUXIANGYINGZIZHIDEQIYEJINRUNONGCUNGONGSHUISHICHANG,TUOZHANGUANWANGLOUSUNGUANKONGZIXUNYEWU,TONGGUOZHENGFUGOUMAIFUWUDENGFANGSHIKAIZHANHEZUO。GULIYOUTIAOJIANDEDIQU, JIANLIFUWUYUNONGCUNGONGSHUIGONGCHENGYUNXINGGUANLIHEGUANWANGJIANLOUDEZHUNGONGYIXINGDEZHUANYEJISHUFUWUDUIWU。

LIUSHIFAHUISHICHANGJIZHIZUOYONGPEIYUYINJINQIYECANYUNONGCUNPEGONGSHUIGUANWANGLOUSUNGUANKONG。GONGSHUIGONGCHENGGUANWANGLOUSUNGUANKONGCHUQIXIAOYIMINGXIAN、SHOUYIFENGHOU,YINGCHONGFENLIYONGJINGJIXIAOYIGANGGANHESHICHANGGUILV,DIAODONGSHEHUIZIBENCANYUJIJIXING,TUIJINHETONGJIESHUIGUANLIZAINONGCUNGONGSHUILINGYUDEYINGYONG。JIANLIJIANQUANYINJINSHEHUIZIBENCANYUGONGCHENGYUNXINGGUANLIDEJILIJIZHI,GULIJIESHUIFUWUJIGOUDENGZHUANYEQIYEYUNONGCUNGONGSHUIDANWEIQIANDINGGUANLIHETONG,TIGONGGUANWANGLOUSUNGUANKONGDENGJIENENGJIANGHAODEJISHUZHENDUAN、RONGZI、GAIZAOFUWU,YIFENXIANGJIENENGJIANGHAOJINGJIXIAOYIDEFANGSHIHUODEHELISHOUYI。

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